Endogenous Carbon Re-equilibration
Undergraduate Thesis: Low-carbon landscape optimization in suburban area,   2015
Advisor: Yonghua Li

Country Region, GIA, Carbon Economy and Landscape

From the aspect of regional ecological landscape planning of low-carbon, the huge amount of the landscape carbon resources to be reckoned within the country is  noticeable. 

I selected the country area of hilly terrain, Anji, as the main object to study on the landscape pattern and the spatial layout of carbon sinks. I build a space carbon distribution analytical and calculation model adaptive to hilly area. According to the modified GIA (Green Infrastructure Assessment) model, the ecological level to determine carbon growth and stability potential space can be generated. And according to different forest types of carbon sink potential value, by overlapping, we get the results of the synthetic potential evaluation of carbon sink. I analyzed and summarized the regular pattern, draw a sequence of analytical conclusions both from the perspective of landscape ecology and industrial pattern, and respectively put forward the carbon sink landscape optimization recommendations.

Finally, I put forward a proposal to induce 'Rotational Cultivation' and 'Local Carbon Trade' into the villages to promote the landscape of carbon sink to create an 'Endogenous Regional Re-equilibration'.

The calculation model is divided into two parts:

[1] Carbon Sink Capacity: 
This part is based on the fact that surfaces with different covers, especially the vegetation, differs in density of carbon sinks. The basic data needs to be specifically studied from the former researches, because for the trees, it varies with ages and types. So all the data listed in the left form is related with the area of Anji.

The first computing formula is for generating the carbon density.
The second computing formula is to combine the landscape parameters with the carbon sink density so that the completeness of the evaluation can be improved.

And carbon sink potential capacity(absolute value) can be obtained in this way.

[2] Carbon Sink Stability:
The stability is based on the ecological level generated by the adapted GIA model. The result is used to combine with the carbon sink potential to  reach a comprehensive potential evaluation.

And the carbon increment potential is derived from the subtraction of carbon sink potential capacity (absolute value)and current carbon sink capacity. This's the main ingredient for the assessment of carbon sink potential and protection  district in low-carbon landscape. Another important meaning of the carbon increment potential is that the value actually is related with the age and the vegetative cycle of different trees, which indicates that the area with lower value should be renewed and that of high value should be protected till each cycle ends. Thus we induce the 'Rotational Cultivation' to maximize the carbon sink efficiency.

Mapping | Low-carbon Landscape Assessment

Model| Carbon Capacity Calculation of Landscape

Economy Model| Rotational Cultivation & Local Carbon Trade 

With the forest management of 'Rotational Cultivation' based on the low-carbon landscape analysis and vegetative cycle, the effiency of carbon sink can be maximized, and carbon forests can be more operative in the local carbon trade.

Proposal | New pattern of  urban-rural structure through carbon

Development| Typical pattern of  urban-rural structure

The rural area can actually be the carbon pool for the local cities around, and cities should allocate more funds for rural areas not only for development but also for carbon sink equilibrium. The strategy can be an opportunity for urban and rural areas 's development in division and cooperation rather than assimilation or country's recession. 

Since Carbon Trade can hardly be expanded all over the world, the only effective way is to run the strategy regionally in a certain district. The urban-rural district can be a better choice for the strategy. With the legislation and supervision enforced by local government, the carbon trade model can be operative: those big enterprises in or around Anji, should pay a tax to invest a certain area of carbon trees according to their income and carbon emission. The investment will be contributed to the development of rural area and the preservation of  natural ecology. The investors could also gain a better social image and part of profit from the sale of the forest products and .

Thus, with more jobs and economy opportunities, more young people will come back home for cultivation. More area can be protected from the disorderly expansion. The regional carbon emission and sink can be equilibrated, so dose the economic development. 

The typical pattern of China's urban-rural dual structure is: the rural area only provides land resource and agriculture products for urban. The people migrate from country to city seldom come back home, which results the situation that most population stay in rural areas are children and elders. And rural area cannot get enough support to develop in a more sustainable way. Consequently, rural areas will face either assimilation or recession in the near future.